• Hopewell Animal Hospital
  • 2611 Route 52,
  • Hopewell Junction,
  • New York,
  • 12533
  • Phone: (845) 221-7387

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Dogs + Surgical Conditions

  • Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a condition that is also commonly referred to as dry eye. It is a common eye condition resulting from inadequate production of the aqueous portion of the tear film by the lacrimal gland or the third eyelid gland. Any condition that impairs the ability to produce adequate amounts of tear film can result in dry eye. Most dogs with KCS have painful, red, and irritated eyes leading to squinting. The treatment of dry eye is to stimulate tear production and to replace tear film. The prognosis for dogs diagnosed with KCS has never been better.

  • Lameness refers to an inability to properly use one or more limbs. It is most often associated with pain or injury. The most common causes of acute or sudden lameness in dogs are soft tissue injury (strain or sprain), injury to a joint, bone fracture, or dislocation. Osteoarthritis and hip dysplasia may also cause lameness in dog. Your veterinarian will determine the best course of action based on your pet's condition and the results of diagnostic tests. Lameness of unknown origin is common in dogs of all types and sizes. In some cases, a trial with anti-inflammatory medications may be necessary.

  • Laryngeal paralysis is a condition that causes dysfunction of the larynx causing reduced ability to breathe deeply and can obstruct the airway. It can be a congenital condition of young dogs or may be due to a neuromuscular disease in older dogs. Clinical signs include coughing, noisy breathing, and exercise intolerance. A definitive diagnosis is made through an examination of the larynx with an endoscope or laryngoscope. Treatment of mild cases involves environmental management to reduce any stress on the larynx and medications used for flareups. More severe or congenital cases require surgery.

  • Laser surgery is a procedure that generates a beam of light energy at a specific wavelength, resulting in the cutting of tissues. There are advantages of laser surgery when compared to traditional stainless steel surgical scalpels, which are decreased pain, decreased inflammation, reduced blood loss, and improved tissue healing. Routine procedures such as ovariohysterectomy and castration are commonly done with laser.

  • The femoral head is the ball part of the hip joint and if it develops necrosis or dies, it can no longer function properly. Necrosis is due to loss of the blood supply to the femoral head, which may be the result of a growth abnormality or trauma to the hip. It is a hereditary condition of small breed dogs. The most common clinical signs are slowly progressing hind limb lameness, with resulting inability to bear weight on the affected limb or both hind limbs. Diagnosis is made by radiographs of the hip joint. The treatment of choice is femoral head and neck ostectomy which results in a good prognosis.

  • The lens is the transparent structure within the eye that focuses light on the retina. The lens can fall backwards into the eye known as a posterior luxation, where it rarely causes discomfort, or it can fall forwards into the eye, called an anterior luxation. Anterior luxation blocks the drainage of fluid from the eye resulting in glaucoma or increased intra-ocular pressure (IOP). An anterior (forward) luxation is an emergency and can lead to further complications such as glaucoma and blindness. Surgery can help preserve vision if done promptly, but ultimately some cases may lead to removal of the entire eye. If the lens luxates posteriorly, or falls into the back of the eye, it causes little or no discomfort. These cases may not require any treatment.

  • Cauda equina syndrome or lumbosacral syndrome is a condition caused by the narrowing of the spinal canal and results in compression of the spinal nerve roots; pressure on the nerves that exit the spine cause the clinical signs. This pressure may be due to a narrowed spinal canal caused by arthritis, intervertebral disc herniation, an infection in the disc, trauma, congenital malformation, or a spinal tumor. Dogs with lumbosacral syndrome are in pain. If the clinical signs and radiographs are suggestive of cauda equina syndrome, a myelogram, is performed. Treatment of cauda equina involves either conservative medical treatment or surgical intervention. This is dependent upon the duration and severity of the signs, as well as the owner's finances.

  • A luxating patella is a kneecap that moves out of its normal location, causing an affected dog to skip or hop on three legs. Many toy or small breed dogs, including the Maltese, Chihuahua, French Poodle, and Bichon Frise, have a genetic predisposition for a luxating patella. Surgery should be performed to prevent the development of arthritis or another knee injury.

  • There are several different types of malignant mammary tumors, with carcinomas being the most common. Carcinomas arise from epithelial (skin) cells, tubules of the mammary glands, or other cells found in the mammary chain. The size of the masses and their appearance may vary, but they are usually firm and nodular. Occasionally, the skin over the mass may ulcerate (open) and bleed, and the affected area may feel warm to the touch and become painful. Detecting and treating these tumors when they are small, and before spread has occurred, will provide your dog with the best chance for long-term control.

  • Mast cell tumors are most common in the skin of dogs and have a nodular, alopecic, sometimes inflamed appearance. These can be itchy and can fluctuate in size. They are generally easily diagnosed by fine needle aspirate but histopathology is needed to grade the tumor to determine the prognosis and best management. Tumors can range from lower-grade, with minimal metastasis and spread, to higher-grade, with a high risk of metastasis and local invasion. Treatment usually involves surgical removal with wide margins and, depending on complications, may require supportive treatment including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and therapy to target the mutation that instigated the tumor.